The presence of valuable products makes bottom ash (BA) interesting from a commercial point of view. The composition of the generated BA differs between countries; therefore the valorisation strategy should start with characterising the BA.

The proper analysis of bottom ash should be the first step before making a decision about the treatment plant concept.

Correct sampling and analysing with a focus on the primary goal (high recovery of metals, clean residue fraction, etc.) is one of the most important steps.